American or Christian? 

    Being Christian and American is very common. Many Americans are both and this is even not a issue for them. According to Pew Research 70% claim to be Christian. The media is hyping up that we lost 8% less then decade. I think when we lost about 30%m then we got problem. What do ironic is the fact most of the final fathers were not Christian, but Deist who attend a christian church, but deny basic Christian concepts. Such as deny Jesus was divine or that he did any miracles. Heretic as thomas Jefferson took apart the scriptures removing all the miracles from the Bible. He was no christian, nor was George Washington. He did not believe Jesus was risen from the dead, however, this does not make them bad people, but they were imperialist and slave owners and they were ok with mocking Christian. They are not people I look up too, that for sure, furthermore, if we’re not for them those, I would have their land as my own. So I thank them for their concept even, if some of their thinking was heretical. 

     I happen to be Progressive politically and middle of the road on religion. I hear many on “the left” who belittle religion. now people on “the right” who claim to be Christian or some form of religion. I heard on the Radio, The constitution is law and the Bible is not. I agree that religion and state need to be separate, but the Bible is Holy and the constitution is not. Jesus is Lord and not the constitution. Please do not get me wrong, I love America and agree with laws for most part. but, America very much about martialism this is never a good thing. But, what so great about this Nation you can speak your mind here. Speak Ill of the Nation and not be arrested, unless it illegal action you are doing and you should be. However, American system is set up for changing and is constantly evoluting to make America the great Nation could be.The Constitution is living breathing institution and it be a good thing or bad. As an American who is also Christian I must focus on helping the poor and needy. Which is not as important to the American government (specially the Republicans). The Republicans claim to be the party of morals, but they seem to be in the pocket of the rich. They are against Social Security and Medicare. Their even talk getting ride of private schools and unfunding public library. This will allow the dumbing down of America. They are against government resources for the poor and needy. I could not vote for them in good conscious, since they against everything except the business valves. Keep in mind when say Republicans I mean the ones in power, rather everyday Americans republicans.

     Now Democrats are really not that different, but they offer people something. Until we have real third party nothing is going to change. President Obama the past four years has pretty much deny his basic rights to do his job. These Republicans are either racist or just so narrow mind. I like to think the ladder, since they have never treat a white president like this?  It is so frustrating do to the facts Obama is black and they claim he is not American. But, his Mama was white and American therefore he is American. I do not agree with Democrats on their hardcore stand on pro choice. Please understand this more of moral issue then legal. I do not feel the government has the right tell woman what to do with body. However, late term abortion is going beyond fairness too. The Fetus is life and should be respect it as well. I think it clear in the Bible that life is holy and pure. We need to respect and protect them. Many female fetuses are killed the most, because the parent wanted the boy over a girl. I want to service and protect my fellow human beings, especially those who voice is muted or deny. 

     This why I am for Gay marriage and this to me is basic right. Being gay is not a choice and even, if were is not right force your valves on another? Jesus tell us the Sabbath was man for humanity well being, rather then to control men. Thankfully most of the supreme court now voted in favor of gay rights and this awesome.We need to show compassion to others especially those who are deny a voice. The gay community needs to be allow to function and be given same right as others. We need to respect different people with different perspectives. I am Christian first, but loyal American afterward. This great nation has allow my family to voice it own options and valves. My descent were from glorest Ireland and Germany back in 1800’s. They came for a better lives. Now, I am from them and there descents who fully benefited from their travels. They spoke different languages such as Gaelic and German and even Italian. There is no better place to be, They struggled to make this American Dream. I am living proof of it being possible. God bless America, my home sweet home. 

       But our original sin, slavary is still there. We need to do more for young American Africans especially for young men, who are shot in cold blood for being black. I must admit, I do not see America Africans as much as I like, but where I live there really is not that many. I remember some years ago an America African who was trying to sell stuff in there area. He had barge that show he was former prisoner and he was trying to better himself. He was trying to hitch a ride and this was illegal, but in this area there is no bus. Some local were not please. My brother was scary of this person, just before the former prisoner was trying to hitch a ride by him. I am shame to admit, but we called the cops. Just letting the authorities know what he. Was doing. Maybe this was racist act by me? I try to be open mind, but maybe I was not in this moment? We must keep trying to improve and evolve into better person. Father forgive me. Now, we need to require all cops to carry body camera and require they are used at least in more mintories communities. Being Black should not be crime, but in many cases, it seem so. Lord Jesus said it best, Do until other as you would have undone yourself. I fail in that maybe and I am sorry, but next time I will do better. We should not see people as colors, but as human beings. 

Anti-Semitism is incompatible with Christianity

The definition of anti-semitism accord to ADL is 

The belief or behavior hostile toward Jews just because they are Jewish. It may take the form of religious teachings that proclaim the inferiority of Jews, for instance, or political efforts to isolate, oppress, or otherwise injure them. It may also include prejudiced or stereotyped views about Jews.
First of all Lord Jesus and his Mother Mary; the apostles were particing Jews. They were not rabbical Jews, but temple center Jews. Therefore, Christianity and Judiaism are both modern takes on Jewish temple worship of the ancient Israelite . So, anyone claiming to be Christiwn and anti-Semitic are not following Jesus teaching. No one does Jesus claim to reject his Jewishness. Just about whole Bible except for Luke-Act is done by Jewish people. 

Furthermore, Jesus came to free us from law, but he never said it was wrong. He/God came to realize for lack of better word, we could not live up to the laws. I believe is over 336 laws give or take. These laws were tough during era, where these laws were necessary to set the Jewish people a part and to lesser degree, we Christians are to be holy people. God want us to live up to his teaching and to follow his rules, The Ten commended are basic marker on how to behave and act with others. 

From Exdous 20: 1-21

20 And God spoke all these words, saying, 2 “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.3 “You shall have no other gods before[a] me.4 “You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 5 You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 but showing steadfast love to thousands[b] of those who love me and keep my commandments.7 “You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.8 “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9 Six days you shall labour, and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates. 11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.12 “Honour your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you.13 “You shall not murder.[c]14 “You shall not commit adultery.15 “You shall not steal.16 “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour. 17 “You shall not covet your neighbour’s house; you shall not covet your neighbour’s wife, or his male servant, or his female servant, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbour’s.”

18 Now when all the people saw the thunder and the flashes of lightning and the sound of the trumpet and the mountain smoking, the people were afraid[d] and trembled, and they stood far off 19 and said to Moses, “You speak to us, and we will listen; but do not let God speak to us, lest we die.” 20 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear, for God has come to test you, that the fear of him may be before you, that you may not sin.” 21 The people stood far off, while Moses drew near to the thick darkness where God was.
These are basics that all human being can follow. We must respect out follow being and take care of our elders, before these laws, they were not being follow. 

Matthew 5:1-11 (Esvuk) 

The Sermon on the Mount

5 Seeing the crowds, he went up on the mountain, and when he sat down, his disciples came to him.

The Beatitudes
2 And he opened his mouth and taught them, saying:3 “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.4 “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.5 “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth6 “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.7 “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy.8 “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.9 “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons[a] of God.10 “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.11 “Blessed are you when others revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. 12 Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

Now these are not easy to fully follow. It is our human nature to be sinful and to reject morals. From the Jewish people do we have these pearls. So, next time some sad something ain’t Jewish. If you are Christian Jesus is our Lord and Savior. And he was a jew and he lived and died as one. 

Racism , sexism, homophobia are not of God 

Anyone who claims that God is racist is not reading the Bible fully. God created all humanity, because He did not wish to be alone. God made us to serve him and this our sole purpose according to the Bible. The Author of Geneis wrote,

Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. And God blessed them. And God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” (‭Genesis‬ ‭1‬:‭26-28‬ ESV)

Notice the term race is not even used? White race  or black race  or yellow race, was later invent to divdle people. If you think your race is better then another you are in some serious denial. Since we all came from Adam and Eve type person, this mean we all sinners and not single one of us is with sin. Sin is such a part of humanity, I doubt we can fully be with out it. According to “Pocket Dictonsry Theological Terms ” 
Sin:  The fundamental unbelief, distrust and rejection of God and human displacement of God as the center of reality. The Bible presents sin as both fallen humanity’s state of separation and alienation from God and as a person’s purposeful disobedience to God’s will as evidenced in concrete thought or act. As an inherent part of the human condition sin is universal, and it is both corporate and individual.

Sin is rejection of God and all races are guilty of this. Keep in mind when so called “white Devils” according Brother Louis Farrakhan. white people would buy and trade with Africans for other Africans who were sold into slavery. This original  sin of America, because they claim freedom and justice for all. This was only for white Protestant land owning males. Keep in mind women could not own property  until mid 1800’s and it was not until 1929, women were given the right to vote. So from very start all Races sold each other and their own common. The term slave come from Slavic people because a lot of them were sold into slavary. The Nation of Islam would just blame whites and to some degree thru are right. However Islam own slaves too and took Africans as slqves too but, this is over look by Nation of Islam. Which it self is perversion of islam. Islam does not preach hate as brother Malcom learned on his trip to Mecca. Any reglion that claim racism is ok, they are not worthy of your time. 


It is undeniable that sexism is in the bible, but men and women were need for humanity, men and women complete each other and with out Babies humanity would be lost. However, being Christian, I look to example of Lord Jesus and he clearly treated women pretty much as equal to men. Look at many example with in Bible. Mary and Martha, his Mother who was in his life to very end. The dimensions who follow with the apostles, the women who did not abandon him unlike his male disciples. Jesus would appears to Mary Magdalene before the men and by choir to appears to women first. He was saying in essence women were just important as men. So, when hear someone belittle and mock women. They are not following Jesus. Jesus treated women as equal pretty much. It is true thy were not his apostles, but in The Orthodox Church Mary Mahalene is called the Apostles of the apostles. So, if hear this boneless, remember women are just as worthy as men. 


It can be argue the Bible is anti gay, but always been taught by the Church hate the sin, not the sinner. I have come to believe being gay is not a choice and to ask someone to change their Chemical make up is really not possible. These so called Christians with signs say “God hate fags” first are rejecting basic Christisn teaching by attacking people. Since were all sinners, it is not fair claim homosexually is worth sin then others. Keep in my mind homosexual and pedophiles are not the same. There is never excuse for pedophilia, it is abuse of children and very much a crime against humanity. Now when we tell about the gay community this mean two consenting  adults of age (over 18 years old), if they desire should be allow to be Marry. Now a Christian marriage can be debatable, but I still feel, if they are willing to be in loving Relationship in Union of marriage is still better then them shacking up going from partner to partner. 

Let us not forget many straight people are living in sin and are not practicing marriage themselves. It is wrong to have sex outside of marriage and I believe this goes for men couple too. We need stop labeling and separating people and offering them love and respect for all God’s children. We need to love and respect all people. 

Therefore, I hope this give you some food for though and, if you have some question ask me. I am not The authority and I am just follow human being. I am person who society has come to write off, saying because of my learning disable and my weight that I am freak and unworthy of society. I have always been outsider and I never could fully fit in. However, I believe in Jesus and I believe been called to service God since the age of 13 years old. In the end compassion is The ultimate religion. If you do not love, you do not know Jesus. We do matter to him, reach out and repent.

The saints 

It about time for Protestants to embrace the saints again. The word santo/a mean holy and there St who mean holy one. Since we are saved by Jesus alone, we all are saints. Now these saints who the church remembers were a bit more outstanding and did more then some do. However, they are example to rest of us and we should remember their feast days as reminders of what we can do too. Just like St Mary the Virgin, we can obey and listen to God. By being humble and carry Christ in our own way. Mary did not always under her son and even possible got angry at him. Remember when he stay behind and was at the temple for three days. Mary and Joseph were freaking out. Imagine poor Mary, she lost the Son of God. She even seem to bug him at times and worry about him. She was there when he turn water into wine and was with him as he was torture and murdered by the Roman Empire. Now she was told in her youth most likely when she. Was 12 or 14 year old, she would suffer in taking care of him. She saw that they arrested him and lead him away beat him and whip him. She saw him carry the cross and final died on the cross. She was with the apostles in upper corner room when Holy Ghost came up on them. According to legend she was taken care of John and either stay in Holy land or went Asia mine either him. Also according legend she she get to 72 years old, she either past away and her body and soul were taken up, or she never died and went to heaven. Paradox, it sound simpler to Jesus death and resurrection, however if look to rev 12:1-6. The child is taken up and this is seen as Jesus and woman is seen by some as church and other as Mary. I think it Mary and this is example of assumption or Sleeping of sleep of Mary. I grew up Catholic and gave special place in my heart for Mary. She always telling us to listen to her son. Do as he said, she told workers who saw water turn to Wine. So listen to Jesus and realise the saints are example for us and if ask your follow christian to pray for you why not a saint in heaven? If they in paradise could do any harm? This of course is just asking for their prayers, not them doing anything. Rather God alone does stuff for us, but saints just Maybe have his ear too. St Francis is role model to me and I look to him as example of how to be more like Christ, there are other wonder saints you can explore, Dr King was a saint and another example to look too. 


We live in age, where American-Africans descent are shot and killed and no justice is being done. Welive in society where free speech means to mock and be little someone else beliefs is ok.  And people wonder why there violent in our society. If I was someone of African descent, I would not truth the cops,even more then already do. It seem just in past year give or take young American-Africans are being shot and killed. I wish to try to be open mind and give the benefit of the doubt. However, Trayvan Martin was attacked and killed for just being black. George Zimmerman decided this young man was out of place and went after him. Trayvon young black man saw a creepy dude follow him in the rain and he was then attack. Zimmerman murdered him and claim self-defense. He was arrest and put on trail and he got away with it. Next Michael Brown possibly a criminal who just robbed a store, he attack the officer Wilson. Wilson shot and killed Michael Brown. I think it possible this case Wilson was attack and he defense himself. I feel he was  possible given bum rap, but  I was not there. Now Baltimore with Freddie Gray was arrested and taken into custody and he has his neck broken. There is no excuse for this and on top of it, he was innocent. He did not have a weapon, they claim he did. Now, we shall see, if he was get justice. Six police officers were arrested and will face trail. Now just the other day, A cop shot 13 times into a car, with two unarm people and he got off.  He should lost his job and face some actions.He murdered  these people and face no crime for it. How can someone of African descent trust any cop in this city after this ?  American-Africans have serious truth issue and white America need to come to terms with serious injustice done to black communities across America.

Now let take another issue to task. Right now, it seem to be in vogue to attack and be littleother people faiths or cultures. A horrible a event happen in France this past year, all because of somestupid cartoons that were just rude and disrespect of Arabs and their faith. Many of these cartoons are just rude and crude. They draw arabs as, if they are savages. Many great things that we take for granted as invent or preserve by Muslims to one degree to another. Now not all Muslims and Arabs are thesame and this need to be taken into account. However, these French trouble makers, felt that it was okto mock them especially, however they also mock Christians and Jews, others. But, some Muslims arecrazy even to do something. I am Christian and I believe in Jesus, many mock my Lord daily. But, I do not feel the need to attack these heathens. However, some Muslims felt otherwise. I can not help, but feel these people were asking for it. I do not call them martyrs, nor do I think what wrote was professionaldone. However, any form of violent is never justified in this day and age. If God is so great he, will happen these issue in his due time.  All we can do, is the best we can and try to be a good Christian or Muslim or Jew.  These are just couple of examples going on in the world today.

The concept of sin!

Today most people in Western society especially in America do not even know what sin is. According to many source I have read over the years is sin mean missing the mark. We all know what is right and what is wrong for the most part. Therefore, human beings should have standards on how they need to act in society. These rules keep the balance and checks. However, many deny there is a God nor there is good or evil in the world. The church as whole is to blame, we have not kept people attending services or masses depending on your branch of Christianity. I believe these lines draw to separate christians into sub groups are at fault with this too. We are all sinners and lacking the glory of God. We have come to think sin is such a part of us, that there is no different from any other behavior. The churches today need to make a different and bring people back to God. There are many unchurched in USA , where some have never heard the Gospel of Jesus. We need to bring people back to the churches. Jesus kingdom must be build by our hands and this christian duty.

4 Views of the Eucharist with regard to the presence of Christ’s body (what do you think)

All the work below was taken from this web address below. What I like just like said big tent ideal each person with in the church will be taught all four of these views, but will pray on it and look to Bible for wisdom. .

Author is by  

  1. Zwinglian (e.g., most Baptists): The Eucharist is a Biblical ordinance which Christians put into practice in obedience to Christ as a token or symbol of their faith and their membership in his body.  Christ’s physical body is not literally present in the Eucharist.  The Eucharist is a memorial (because Christ said, “Do this in memory of me”) reminding us of what Christ did for us once for all on the cross. ( if this is true, then our Eucharist can really just be done by anyone. And it really has no meaning at least to me)


  1. Calvinist (e.g., Presbyterians): Christ’s body is present at the Eucharist, but not “locally present,” i.e. not present in any particular place or locality (e.g., not in the bread, not in your mouth). Christ’s presence is spiritual, not bodily—in the power of his life-giving flesh, but not in its material substance.  His body is located literally in heaven, but it is present by the power of the Holy Spirit for all who believe.  If we receive the bread and wine in faith, it is as if we were raised on high by the power of the Spirit to partake of his flesh in heaven.  For that’s where his resurrected body remains, until he comes again in glory.  The liturgies informed by Calvin’s theology typically say: as truly as we eat this bread, we partake of his body.  But we partake of his body by faith, not by chewing it with our teeth.  Those who take the sacrament without faith receive bread and wine, but not the body and blood of Christ. ( I like this concept, but I think more in line with Lutheran. But this make sense much more then ladder.)


  1. Lutheran (often called Real Presence). Christ is present bodily, not just spiritually. His body is present in the bread.  (Lutherans like to say it is “in, with and under” the bread.  But I think just plain “in” is clearer).  The body is present in the bread just as truly as the bread is present in your mouth.  Since Christ is bodily present in the bread, all who eat it are eating his body, even if they don’t believe (but without faith it does their soul harm rather than good).  How this is all possible is something we can’t fully explain, but it has to do with the fact that we are talking about his resurrected, glorified body.  Also, he has ascended to heaven, which does not mean some place in the sky (you’re not going to get there in a spaceship) but at God’s right hand—and God’s right hand is everywhere.  Thus Christ’s body can be everywhere, while remaining at God’s right hand.  So it is literally his body, right there in the bread and in our mouths. But we should remember it is his glorified body.  We chew it with our teeth, but we don’t do it any harm (his glorified body cannot be cut up, digested, etc.).  And it is locally present, located in space, in the sense that it’s right there in the bread in our mouths—even though it’s not contained or limited by the bread, because Christ’s body is present in every place that God is present. 


  1. Roman Catholic (Transubstantiation): Christ is indeed bodily present in the Eucharist (as the Lutherans say). The great difference is that for Catholics, there is no bread left.  The bread has been wholly changed into Christ’s body, and the wine into his blood.  So in the Eucharist you still have the appearance of bread and wine, looking and tasting exactly like bread and wine, which is to say (in technical terms) that you have the accidents of bread and wine.  But in its substance (i.e. in its true, underlying reality) these are not bread and wine but the body and blood of Christ.  Just as a change of form is called a trans-formation, this unique and miraculous change of substance is called tran-substantiation. ( I like this, but I do not feel necessary Biblical Jesus , I am not sure would want people to go to church and worship bread on the altar. However, I am not Catholic anymore.)


In short, in the Eucharist:

  1. For Zwingli, Christ’s body is not present, but is symbolized by the bread.
  2. For Calvinist, Christ’s body is spiritually but not locally present.
  3. For Lutherans, Christ’s body is locally present, literally in the bread.
  4. For Roman Catholics (and Eastern Orthodox), the bread has been changed into Christ’s body.

Faith & Works

As Christians today, there is major debate is faith or works that save humanity? The Gospels appears to claim Jesus said we are to be judge by our actions. He said couple of times you will know person by his or her actions.

According to Matthew Jesus said,

 “And Jesus went throughout all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom and healing every disease and every affliction. When he saw the crowds, he had compassion for them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd. Then he said to his disciples, “The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few; therefore pray earnestly to the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest.”” (Matthew‬ ‭9‬:‭35-38‬ ESV)

Jesus said,

““Either make the tree good and its fruit good, or make the tree bad and its fruit bad, for the tree is known by its fruit. You brood of vipers! How can you speak good, when you are evil? For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. The good person out of his good treasure brings forth good, and the evil person out of his evil treasure brings forth evil. I tell you, on the day of judgment people will give account for every careless word they speak, for by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned.””(Matthew‬ ‭12‬:‭33-37‬ ESV)

Jesus also said,”And stretching out his hand toward his disciples, he said, “Here are my mother and my brothers! For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother and sister and mother.”” (Matthew‬ ‭12‬:‭49-50‬ ESV) he you once more see you judge by action, rather be relate even to Jesus.

Jesus also said,

“And he said, “Are you also still without understanding? Do you not see that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the stomach and is expelled? But what comes out of the mouth proceeds from the heart, and this defiles a person. For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false witness, slander. These are what defile a person. But to eat with unwashed hands does not defile anyone.”” (Matthew‬ ‭15‬:‭16-20‬ ESV)

So what you say and do is reflection of soul.

:St. Paul would be the one who said, we are saved by work and major part of the Christian Bible was written by St Paul.

St Paul wrote,

Well then; it was through one man that sin came into the world,   and through sin death, and thus death has spread through the whole human race because everyone has sinned.  Sin already existed in the world before there was any law, even though sin is not reckoned when there is no law.  Nonetheless death reigned over all from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sin was not the breaking of a commandment, as Adam’s was. He prefigured the One who was to come …  There is no comparison between the free gift and the offence. If death came to many through the offence of one man, how much greater an effect the grace of God has had, coming to so many and so plentifully as a free gift through the one man Jesus Christ!  Again, there is no comparison between the gift and the offence of one man. One single offence brought condemnation, but now, after many offences, have come the free gift and so acquittal!  It was by one man’s offence that death came to reign over all, but how much greater the reign in life of those who receive the fullness of grace and the gift of saving justice, through the one man, Jesus Christ.  One man’s offence brought condemnation on all humanity; and one man’s good act has brought justification and life to all humanity.  Just as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man’s obedience are many to be made upright.  When law came on the scene, it was to multiply the offences. But however much sin increased, grace was always greater;  so that as sin’s reign brought death, so grace was to rule through saving justice that leads to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.[1]

 However, St. James the brother of the Lord, would seem to believe we are saved by works.

St James wrote,

How does it help, my brothers, when someone who has never done a single good act claims to have faith? Will that faith bring salvation?  If one of the brothers or one of the sisters is in need of clothes and has not enough food to live on,  and one of you says to them, ‘I wish you well; keep yourself warm and eat plenty,’ without giving them these bare necessities of life, then what good is that?  In the same way faith, if good deeds do not go with it, is quite dead.  But someone may say: So you have faith and I have good deeds? Show me this faith of yours without deeds, then! It is by my deeds that I will show you my faith.  You believe in the one God—that is creditable enough, but even the demons have the same belief, and they tremble with fear.  Fool! Would you not like to know that faith without deeds is useless?  Was not Abraham our father justified by his deed, because he offered his son Isaac on the altar?    So you can see that his faith was working together with his deeds; his faith became perfect by what he did.  In this way the scripture was fulfilled: Abraham put his faith in God, and this was considered as making him upright;   and he received the name ‘friend of God’. 24 You see now that it is by deeds, and not only by believing, that someone is justified. There is another example of the same kind: Rahab the prostitute,   was she not justified by her deeds because she welcomed the messengers and showed them a different way to leave?  As a body without a spirit is dead, so is faith without deeds.[2]

As you can read both authors had very different perspectives on salvation. Jesus even seem to say we are judge by our actions

too. Remember the good Samarian? This is a person enemy of the Jews were used as example what to do and the Priest and

other Jewish persons did what was wrong. I attend to agree more with St. Paul, because it seems it almost impossible not to sin. Therefore, it must be faith alone. But, Paul did not fully say this. Martin Luther would come to use this wording.   Maybe this is cough out, that Catholic seen to believe we are judge by works. I have come to believe in more faith, but with some works too. What is your point of view on this ?


[1] The New Jerusalem Bible (New York: Doubleday, 1985), Ro 5:12–21.

[2] The New Jerusalem Bible (New York: Doubleday, 1985), Jas 2:14–26.

Pre-Egalitarianism by Daniel L. M. Smith

The role of women throughout the Bible evolved into Pre-Egalitarianism. According to The Oxford Dictionary, Egalitarian means,  “Believing in or based on the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities.”[1] This concept comes from the Age of  Enlightenment. Nevertheless, if one reads the Bible one can see this happening right before their eyes throughout The Hebrew Bible and  the Christian Bible .  In the first creation story women and men were made at the same time according to A & E’s Mysteries of the Bible series. Biblical women went from total submission to men to equal to status over time.  This essay will look at the Hebrew Bible and the Christian  Bible proposing how women’s roles in the Bible evolved to a pre- Egalitarianism. This will be broken into two parts. The first is on  the Hebrew Bible and how women acted in that era. The second will be on the Christian Bible and how women behaved under Christ. Jesus never treated woman as less, but pretty much as equal to men .

The Hebrew Bible

Women of the Hebrew Bible are very different from the modern perspective of  women.

These were women of the desert and they had to be fit and strong to handle the environment

around them. according to Dr. Bryan Widbin a professor at Alliance Theological Seminary who

specializes in the Hebrew Bible.

D.W Baker writes in The Dictionary of the Old Testament,

The Old Testament, and the religion of which it tells, is male-originated, male-focused and probably anti-women. This is seen in the way that it is written, in the interests of the writers and most clearly in the laws which it describes, where women’s interests and concerns are of small account and where women are seen as little more than the property of men or at best as adjuncts. The Pentateuch in particular shows the truth of these statements.[2]

The Bible is male focused for the most part, however when women were spoken of they had

something important to say to the reader. The women mentioned in the Bible were not typical

for women of modern times These were the marginalized, outsiders and risk takers in this world.


Eve: Genesis  1 through 4

Eve, most likely, was not an historical person, but her story is a very interesting one. “This story would come to define women’s relationships with men within the Judeo-Christian background of the sexes. According to Mary Evans, “Thus the Genesis 1 account tells us that the distinction between the sexes is there from the very beginning, inherent in the idea of Man; the creation of mankind as male and female is an integral part of God’s decision to make Man.”[3] Men and women complete each other in a perfect union according to the Bible. The author of Genesis wrote, “Then the man said, This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.”[4] This is a covenant that, for better or worse, they will be as one for life. This is example of the first marriage, according to many Biblical scholars.

According to the biblical account, God made Adam and then all the animals for Adam to have as partners . Adam was not happy and God put him in a deep sleep and God took a rib from Adam. From this rib, God made Eve. They lived in the Garden of Eden and they could eat from any tree, however not the Tree of the Knowledge of  Good and Evil. For  if they did, they would be like God and know good from evil. A talking Snake would trick them into eating from the tree. God would find out and punish them by removing them. They would have to work for their living and no longer would be free as they were in the past. In theory, Eve was supposed to follow Adam however she wanted an equal say and was tricked by the snake to eat from  Tree . By her doing this, she was changing her role to become more active in the world around her. She was not just a sheep following orders. She wanted to be equal to Adam and to God. By her doing this, she not only hurt herself, but harmed the whole of humanity. As the myth goes, all of humanity is connected to her throughout time.  They would have a child Cain who would kill  Abel because of Adam and Eve’s  disobedience. From this one story many have thought that Eve was responsible for the fall of humanity, however both her and Adam were guilty of it.

Sarah:  From Genesis 12 to 23

Sarai would become the mother of the Jewish people. She would follow Abram to this new land of milk and honey.  Sarai, by God’s blessing, becomes Sarah who had Isaac . From Issac would eventually come  the blood line of the Lord Jesus. Sarah is obedient to Abraham and travels all over with him, sometimes pretending to be his sister, when ironically  it has been proposed in Gen 12 that she was his half-sister.  She directed  Abraham to take Hager as his second wife. Hager would give birth to Ishmael, and Hager would look down to Sarah. Sarah would finally give birth to Isaac, but would force both Hager and her son to leave their family.  God protected them nevertheless. Abraham would finally get to the land and would have Isaac with Sarah. Sarah was not perfect and she had doubt.  

However, she was obedient to her husband.  Sarah’s role would change and she would become the matriarchal mother of the Hebrew people. Her submission would allow for women’s roles to change in the Bible over time, because of her providing the blood line to Jesus who would elevate women. The role of Sari would be as an obedient wife and she would then become Sarah. The Messiah would come and from her line and women would in the future have more options and equal rights through Christ.

Rebekah Genesis 24 to 26

Rebekah was from the old country before Abraham  came to the new Promise land.  For some reason God wanted his descendants to come from this part of the world.  Rebekah would marry Isaac and from this marriage Jacob and Esau would come. Esau was manipulated out of his birth right by Jacob.

Rebekah, by tricking her husband Jacob, would become the leader of Israel and she

would become  very important in Judaism. Rebekah felt it was her right to make one son have

power over the other. She felt Jacob would be a better son to rule over her people. If it were not

for Rebekah, Jacob would never have become Israel. Rebekah’s role would change from

daughter to wife and then to mother. She would be obedient and listen to her husband.

Pre-Egalitarianism would still have long way to go,; women were just objects of men at this period, it



Rachel and Leah: Genesis 28 through 36

Rachel and Leah were sisters and were considered property. Their father, Laban, would sell them both to Jacob after seven years. Jacob had  no desire to marry Leah, but was tricked according to Genesis 26 . He would have to wait another seven years to marry Rachel. Baker wrote, “ Laban suggested that, as soon as the seven days of the wedding festivities accompanying his marriage to Leah were fulfilled, Jacob could marry Rachel, on the condition that he work for Laban for an additional seven years.”[5] What made matters worse was that Leah could have many  children and Rachel could only have two. In this era, women not having  many children were seen as cursed. Both of these sisters would suffer in their own way due to the men in their lives. Their role seemed to be one of submission and yet their stories are still one of the most moving of the Bible today. If it were not for these women, the nation of Israel would not be what it is today. Women of this age, did not get to decide who why they loved and who they would marry. Consider how both sisters had to sleep with same man.

Baker states,

3.1.3. Genesis 26–50: Isaac, Jacob and Joseph Narratives. Rebekah, particularly in Genesis 27, continues to be portrayed as the dominant partner in her marriage. Her manipulation of Isaac and favoritism toward *Jacob is not necessarily approved by the text, but the writer clearly presents her initiative and ability. As the Jacob stories proceed, there is continued interest in family life, and the writer draws clear pictures of Rachel and Leah with an insight into the vital importance of fecundity for these women’s valuation of themselves. However, in these chapters the focus remains centered on Jacob, and there is little sign of a critique of contemporary values or any parallels to the concern for Sarah’s spiritual development that the earlier chapters present.[6]

  Not only would it cause them conflict, but it would also affect their children. Joseph would be sold into slavery by his brothers, so that Jacob thought he was dead. Rachel and Leah’s gender roles would not change or move towards  Pre-egalitarianism.

Miriam:  Exodus  & Numbers 12

Miriam was the sister of Moses and Aaron. Miriam would watch Moses be sent down to the river into the hands of pharaoh’s daughter who raised Moses as an Egyptian. Miriam was a slave and would wait for Moses to return to save their people by the power of God. Miriam with Aaron, would be a prophet under Moses.   Dr. Rosen wrote, “Traditional midrash matches Miriam’s life nearly miracle for miracle with that of Moses, though without crossing the line that would usurp Moses’ power in favor of his sister’s.”[7] Miriam would come to challenge Moses and would lose, due to God favoring Moses over her. Baker wrote,  “Because of this incident, Miriam’s name evidently became associated with punishment and leprosy (see Deut 24:9). Her name can also mean ‘bitterness,’ for it resembles the Hebrew word for bitterness (Ex. Rab. 26:1).”[8] Does this mean women should not question men? This is the traditional view that women should be submissive to men, especially their husbands or their fathers or even their brothers. This would not have been easy for Miriam since she was a Prophetess (ex 15:20).  Moses, the father of Torah was being questioned by his sister and she died because of it.  This is a step back for women in being equal to men because she tried and failed.

Nevertheless, Miriam demanded respect and she got it. Was this a family matter? Who was Moses that he did not live as the Hebrew slaves, but she did. Maybe he did not fully understand what it meant  to be Hebrew according to her. Since this story goes back so long ago, there is no way to know what fully happened between them.  According to Baker, “In Jewish tradition it also says that, like her brothers Aaron and Moses, Miriam died by the kiss of God because the angel of death had no power over her (b. B. Bat. 17a)”.[9] It has been too long for people to know in this life, and in the next who will care to know ?  Here Miriam came  close to being Pre-Egalitarian, however, she pushed too far. For example, she questioned Moses and was punished by God alone in the desert. Pre-Egalitarianism was almost achievied but could not go all the way.. In fact, it was possible that it was pushed back for that generation due to her action.

Ruth: Book of Ruth                        

This whole book is about Ruth and how she was married to a Jewish man who passes away and his mother, Naomi, told her she could go back to Moab  since her son had passed away. Dr. Matthews wrote, “Widows in the ancient Near East had lost all social status and generally were also without political or economic status.”[10] She was Moabite and she went with her mother-in-law  Naomi back to Israel.  They would go back  to Bethlehem and she would find a man to take her as his wife. They needed a protecter to keep them safe in the village. Dr. Matthew  wrote,  Ruth is fashioning herself as a bride, and thus to be seen would be to tip her hand. Most consider her remaining hidden to be an issue not of propriety but of appropriate timing.[11] Therefore in this book, Ruth is an example of how a woman can be trusted and stay faithful to her family.  This is a neutral spot in the Bible were Pre-Egalitarianism is possible, but really did not fully happen either. Again, gender role is becoming more balanced here,than  previously.

Debra: Judges 4

According to Achtemeier ,

Deborah (debʹaw-ruh; Heb., ‘bee’). 1 Rebekah’s nurse (Gen. 35:8; 24:59). 2 An Israelite judge and prophet. Though the exact duties of the judges are not clear, some appear to have exercised legal functions while others were purely military leaders. Deborah combined these two important offices in addition to holding a third one, that of prophet (Judg.4:4)[12].

In this example Deborah would be a leader and Prophetess for her people. This is what the Book

of Judges Chapter 4 is all about. This is the story of Deborah and she is proof women can be

leaders too.  According  Achtemeier again,

Deborah’s victory is recorded in prose (Judg. 4) and poetry (Judg. 5). In the prose version, her general, Barak, refused to go into battle unless Deborah accompanied him. She agreed, declaring that ‘the Lord will sell Sisera into the hand of a woman.’ That woman, we discover later on, is not Deborah, but another courageous woman, Jael.[13]

Here once again is proof that women could be leaders in the Hebrew Bible,  that  they all were

not like Eve who got humanity in trouble. This is the closest story in the Hebrew Bible that

portrayed to Pre-Egalitarianism and this is debatable at that. Was gender role being redefined by

this community or would no man step up? This has been lost to the ages and people will not

know for sure anymore.


Bathsheba: Second Samuel 11.

Bathsheba is King David’s wife and King Solomon’s mother. Collin Biblical Dictionary

wrote, “The second portion of her name, “-sheba” (“-shua” in 1 Chron. 3:5), probably refers to a

foreign god, which may indicate the family of Bathsheba was of non-Israelite origin.[14]  Her story

of bathing on the roof is known to most people. Was this done on purpose to get David’s attention or was she a victim? This has been lost to the ages, since the readers can not claim to read the minds of the deceased people. David would pay for his adultery and murder of her husband Uriah. David and Bethsheba would get married and, lose their first child. Bathsheba would go on to have Solomon. Solomon was not the first born, however Bathsheba got him this title. According to Collin Biblical Dictionary wrote,

 Bathsheba later became the mother of Solomon (12:24), and she and Nathan collaborated to intercede with the elderly David in a way that would ensure Solomon’s succession to the throne (1 Kings 1:11–31). In another instance, she appealed (unsuccessfully) to Solomon on behalf of Adonijah, Solomon’s half brother and former rival for the throne, when Adonijah asked to marry Abishag the Shunammite (1 Kings 2:13–25).[15]

Bathsheba was not a perfect person, however she took care of her own. She is an example of how

to make things happen for yourself. All people  could learn from this, especially   women.

These were some of the greatest women of the Bible and how they would come to influence the

world that people know. Now on to the Christian Bible and women from this period.


The Christian Bible

The Jewish people were no longer a proud nation, but a nation that was put into exile twice and now were trying to come back to the Holy Land. They were in exile for not listening to God and worshipping other gods according to their own Hebrew Bible.  This was the world of the Greek and Roman Empire but the empire would take over a large amount of people, that were never ruled under one kingdom before. Jesus would be born and his teachings would change the world, as we know it today. In this era where men were the center of attention,  this young Rabbi Jesus would come and make people rethink things about gender roles in his own way.

Marshall and McKnight writes,

Yet, as a Jewish male in an androcentric, patriarchal society, Jesus’ respect for women as persons of dignity and worth and his inclusion of them as disciples and proclaimers in his life and ministry was very significant in its own first-century context for women and their place and activity in ministry in the earliest churches and is important as a heritage for both Jewish and Christian people today.[16]

The role of women, still, was submission and some women were bending these rules to

help their people as in the past before Jesus came long. Furthermore, this how Jesus especially

acted with women.

  1. H. Marshall writes,

Women Healed by Jesus. Jesus healed various unnamed women: Peter’s mother-in-law (Mt 8:14–15; Mk 1:29–31; Lk 4:38–39); the daughter of Jairus and the woman with the twelve-year flow of blood (Mt 9:18–26; Mk 5:21–43; Lk 8:40–56); and the eighteen-year crippled woman (Lk 13:11–17) whom Jesus called a “daughter of Abraham,” probably an important status marker for a woman (see further the discussion of Lk 8:1–3 in 3.1. below).[17]

Women’s needs were met by Jesus equally and he treated women the same as men for the most

part. Jesus healed both men and women. There was no difference to him, it appears. According

to Millard Erickson  “Donald Shaner has summarized well Jesus’s relationships to women:

“It is striking that Jesus did not treat women as women but as persons.”[18] Women were always a

part of Jesus’ ministry and this cannot be denied in the research over the years. Women were also

part of Jesus followers, which was very different from other Rabbis.

Marshall writes,

The verb used to designate their following of Jesus is akoloutheō (or its compounds), a term which occurs over seventy-five times in the Gospels and normally means following Jesus in the sense of being a disciple. This lexical evidence confirms the narrative presentation of women as disciples of Jesus, although some would argue that when this term is used of women it does not designate discipleship.[19]

If women can be disciples there is no logical reason not  to think Jesus would be ok with

women being elders too. This is not full Pre-Egalitarianism. It is although, a step closer to it.

Jesus treatment of women would have the church rethink its view of women.


St. Mary the virgin:

Not much is known about Mary, other than her being the Mother of the Lord. According

to Robert Atwell, “Only her name is known for certain – Mary or Miriam (in Hebrew) – and that

she had an aged relative called Elizabeth.”[20] According to the Gospel of Luke, Mary was a young

Jewish girl living in Nazareth, betrothed to a man named Joseph, when a messenger from the

Lord announced that she was to be the bearer of the Son of God to the world. Now Mary, a

person of great faith did not ask questions, but was obedient.[21] According to The Orthodox Church,

Mary has been a model for the church ever since that moment. Mary was truly pure and unconditionally obedient to God. The tradition of the Church holds that Mary remained a virgin all her life (see note on Mt 12:46–50).[22]

Mary was also given the title “Mother of God” and this, in fact is true. For if you believe Jesus is God, then in theory Our Lady is the Mother of God. According to the Rev. Pohle, “The Third Ecumenical Council, which met in Ephesus on Whitsunday, 431, under the presidency of St. Cyril of Alexandria, defined it as an article of faith that Mary is really and truly the mother of God.” Mary’s role was done in obedience, however she had a vision. She would be a force in Jesus life. She pushed him to do his miracles, when he would be reluctant to do so.   If you look to the Gospel of Jesus Christ according to Saint Luke and Saint John, you have most  of the information on Our Lady. Mary was a poor Jewish girl living in Galilee. As we all know, Mary was visited by an Angel of God and she was going to carry the Son of God. Most people would have been afraid, but Mary asked the most logical question “How can this be since I do not known man?” (Luke) The Angel Gabriel would explain that it would be by the power of The Holy Ghost that she would get pregnant. Mary would say “let it be according to your word”.  She knew the Jewish people were to trust in God and follow her to her son and our Savior. The question  arises, if woman is good enough to carry our Lord in her womb, and she is good enough for God, why not for the church’s early ministry? It is rather a paradox that the Roman Catholic Church treat Mary almost like a goddess, however they still feel they need to keep women at distance when comes to the church. Mary was just woman and her purpose was to bring the Savior into the world. It must be stated that Mary is honered not worship by Catholics.

Atwell also writes, “In Christian tradition Mary is often described as ‘the second Eve’

who unlocks Eve’s disobedience”.[23] According to Saint John’s Gospel ch 19 and Luke’s Acts of the Apostles ok 2, Mary was present at the crucifixion of her Son, and was with the apostles and others at Pentecost.  Furthermore, according to the Gospel of John, at the time of his death, Jesus commended the care of his mother to the beloved disciple which may explain why in Christian tradition her final years are associated with both Jerusalem and Ephesus. Ephesus is where Saint John the Apostles went and he possible took her with him.

According to o the  NIV 12:1-5 The Woman and the Dragon ,

A great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head.  She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth. Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on its heads.  Its tail swept a third of the stars out of the sky and flung them to the earth. The dragon stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, so that it might devour her child the moment he was born.  She gave birth to a son, a male child, who “will rule all the nations with an iron scepter.”[a] And her child was snatched up to God and to his throne.

The child is Jesus and the dragon has always been seen as the Devil. The woman by Protestants

is seen as only the church only, however according to Roman and Greek churches this is seen as

Mary too. If the child is Jesus then why cannot the woman be Mary? If this is right by this very

action has not a woman’s body become equal to man in this very act ? Ivone Gebara writes,

Mary’s assumption, however, restores and reintegrates woman’s bodiliness into the very mystery of God. Starting with Mary, the dignity of women’s condition is recognised and safeguarded by the creator of that very bodiliness. In Jesus Christ and Mary the feminine is respectively resurrected and assumed into heaven – definitively sharing in the glory of the Trinitarian mystery from which all proceeds and to which all returns[24].

From Gebara and Bingermer once more,

“Mary’s assumption—seen in the light of Jesus’s resurrection is hope and promise for the poor

of all times and for those are to come as well.” [25]

I know this is rejected, by Protestants however why? It not heretical. Mary is the mother of

the Lord; why would the very body who carried Jesus be left on earth? This is Catholic tradition

and most argue non Biblical, one could think otherwise, too. She is in the Cloud of Witness

praying for humanity.

St. Mary and St. Martha: Luke 10

Luke wrote, 

Jesus came to the village of Martha and Mary and decide to visit them as his way to preaching from village to village. Jesus knew them and they were good friends. Martha got ready to serve him and Mary decides to sit and listen to him instead. Martha was up set up, that she was not helping her get ready to serve Jesus.   (Luke 10:41-42)

What Martha is asking does not seem to be an unreasonable question. Middle Eastern women of that culture, even to this day, have been known to host guests, such as Jesus. However, Martha was not wrong in asking this question, but Mary had decided on the better choice and dropped everything to listen to Jesus. Many women, especially my mother, feel that Mary should have been helping. What my mother did not realize was that Mary was not just doing housework, but she was culturally out of place because she acted like a man would act.  This has been lost on the modern listener or reader because women and men for the most part nowadays do study together and women have more of an active role within the modern churches today. This is where Jesus was different from other rabbis of this era, he treated women as equals for the most part. No one else we know of ,did this.

  What do people think Jesus said to her ? Some would think, that  Mary should get up and help her sister in her time of need. Some may think, that he would tell her that what Mary was doing  was ok. According to Luke Jesus said,  “But the Lord answered, ‘Martha, Martha, do not worry over everything something are more important then other others thing. Such as making time for God before all over others” (Luke 10:41-42). Jesus heard her suffer and was not trying to belittle her feelings, but Jesus knew Mary was in the right. Father J.A Fitzmyer writes, that Martha wanted to follow the traditional meal, but the Lord Jesus wanted to  instruct them in the right way of living.[26][27] Even though she was acting like a man, she knew that Jesus would not always be there, so she would make the most of his time with them. Fitzmyer writes that Jesus was going against the traditional norm of rabbinic Jewish understanding of this era ”.[28]  Once again the Lord Jesus was breaking barriers all over the place, which is Pre-Egalitarianism. R. K. Huges wrote,

Judaism did not forbid women to be instructed in the Torah, however it was unheard of for a rabbi at this time to allow a woman to sit at his feet. Later rabbinic tradition includes quotations such as: The Torch should only be given to men, and a man should not teach his daughter the Torch for met for men.[29]

Some pastors could argue that Jesus was saying it was ok for women to be more active in his ministry and one could see this argument. But not a single woman was picked to be one of his twelve to go out and preach the Gospel. Sometimes we want to reach for things that are not fully there. Jesus is clearly saying women should be active listeners and being willing to drop everything and follow him. This alone is rather radical for this time period. Women were not really considered people and here this Rabbi  made time for them.

Nevertheless, Jesus broke down barriers and made equality of the sexes possible. After all  another woman named Mary  was the first to obey God and carried Jesus Christ our Lord. Now people  could be Martha and get caught up with all the social norms that our society dictates to us or people could be like Mary and drop everything and listen to Jesus’ message. People do not have Jesus walking among them today like Martha & Mary did. But we do have the church and the church today is supposed to be a mouth pieces for God, like the prophets of old.


St. Mary Magdala

Once more, we do not have the whole story of this woman’s life. However, she was the first one to see the risen Lord. In this very act, Jesus can be seen as giving equal rights to women. In this era, it was not very wise to have women speak as witnesses.  Richard Bauckham wrote,

As you know, the women in the Gospel narratives are the first people to find the tomb of Jesus empty. Moreover, they are the only witnesses to the empty tomb who had seen Jesus buried and therefore could vouch for the fact that the empty tomb really was the tomb in which Jesus’ body had been laid two days before. According to two of the Gospels, the women were also the first to meet the risen Lord. The argument you will have heard is that, since women’s testimony in the ancient world, including especially Jewish Palestine, was widely regarded as unreliable and untrustworthy, this role of the women in the Easter events is unlikely to have been invented.[30]

So by picking women, the Gospel writers were taking great risks that believers would not believe them. However God still picked her.

David Veal wrote,

Mary of Magdala (Magdalene) was one of several people of ill repute whose lives were radically changed by Jesus. The scriptures are not explicit about the nature of her many sins, but it is made clear in the gospels that Jesus gave her the will and power to abandon them. [31]

Veal also wrote, “Tradition has held that Mary of Magdala was a very emotional person and our

English word ‘maudlin’ derives from her name. She followed Jesus into Galilee and helped care

for him and the disciples there.”[32]  Atwell wrote, “Along with other faithful women, she stayed

beside the cross during the crucifixion and was the first disciple to discover the empty tomb on

Easter morning.”[33] Women were always there even when men ran for the hills, when times got

bad. Mary Magdala wanted to take care of Jesus’ body after he was murdered so she went to look after the Sabbath. In John 20:13 

Her tearful reaction on finding an empty tomb is still a favorite line to many faithful, “They have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him” When the Lord appeared and called her name, “Mary,” she recognized him and exclaimed, “Teacher!” She was the first to see the risen Lord.

Mary Magdala would become known by the Eastern Church as the Apostles of the Apostles. Atwell wrote, “This commission earned her the title ‘Apostle to the Apostles’ in the early Church”.[34] She saw the Lord risen before they did. She would be there on the day of the Pentecost and she was a follower just as much as the men. Sadly later in history men would feel the need to belittle Mary and claim she was a street walker before she met Jesus. This would allow men to keep women down and think less of her. People know she had several demons in her, which could be real demonic creatures or just mental illness. Nevertheless, Mary Magdala was somebody who followed the Lord until the very end. She was living proof that God could use women to lead too.

Stanley J. Grenz  wrote, “From the fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy at Pentecost (‘Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy’) through the early years of the church, women and men contended for the faith side by side.”[35] From the very start, men and women were treated as equal men and women both were baptised and received the Lord Supper. Genz wrote,

In any case, in the second and third centuries the church ordained women deaconesses along with male deacons. These women ministered to other women in a variety of ways, including instructing catechumens, assisting with women’s baptisms and welcoming women into the church services.”[36]

Women were active in the church and did a lot of forms of leadership.

Genz wrote,

In his most expanded statement of the unifying implications of the gospel, Paul declares that in addition to racial and social distinctions, gender distinctions likewise give way to a new unity in Christ: “There is no longer Jew or Greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus” (Gal 3:28).[37]

St Paul knew that God was not concerned about gender like men were. He wrote a greater

truth, that sometimes he did not always follow. Grenz wrote,

Egalitarians, in contrast, see Galatians 3:28 as the foundation for a new social order in the church. It is Paul’s “Magna Carta of Humanity,”” a charter of Christian equality. In their view this verse looms as the clearest statement of the apostle’s own understanding of the role of women, thereby serving as an “Emancipation Proclamation for Women.[38]

Jesus message is so radical it breaks down all labels and this means gender  too. Jesus spoke

to women as much as men. Alan F. Johnson wrote,

Domination by one gender over the other were not God’s ideal that we were supposed to work hard to uphold; rather, they were predictions of consequences that we were to work hard to overcome and that Jesus himself would fully overcome as a part of our redemption.[39]

Jesus came to  humanity to break  free from all labels and sexism as well. Erickson states,

The faithfulness of the women around Jesus in the time of crisis is striking. We see them at the cross (Luke 23: 49); they sought to anoint Jesus’s body (Luke 23: 55– 56); they discovered the empty tomb, heard the message of the two angels, and told the news to the apostles (Luke 24: 1– 11). 923 There are several indications in Scripture that the gift of prophecy was given to and to be exercised by women.[40]

Women were always in his ministry and were in the end as well.

Johnson wrote,

Scripture must always be my starting point. However, it has been my experience of sexism in the church that has driven me back to the Bible for answers. One of those answers has been this metaphor of the body with all of its parts working together for the good of the whole.[41]

Men and women needed to work together to reach all of humanity.  John Bristow wrote,

Centuries later, church leaders who themselves were a product of Greek culture and education interpreted Paul’s writings from the perspective of Aristotelian philosophy, even to the point of assuming that when Paul wrote of the husband being head of the wife, he was simply restating Aristotle’s analogy of the husband being to his wife like one’s soul to one’s body. As will be seen, a careful reading of what Paul wrote demonstrates that this apostle was actually challenging Aristotle’s idea instead of supporting it.[42]

Was Paul just a person of his age and that he was just sexist? Paul knew what was right, but he

comes off narrow minded , too. Women being silent in the church, what is that about ? Bristow


The translation of this passage, if taken quite liter-ally and observed with all strictness, would mean that women are not to make any sound at all during worship. Women would not be allowed to sing during worship, either with the congregation or in a choir.[43]

Of course not, if this was the case women could not be active in church. When one takes a part of

the chapter and uses it, one can make it mean anything. Bristow wrote,

Instead, his words (as translated) have been employed to debar women from preaching, leading in worship, or even serving sacramental bread and wine (even when such actions do not involve any words spoken on the part of the server!). Such an interpretation is in keeping with Aristotle’s words (quoting Sophocles) that ‘silence is a woman’s glory.’[44]

If one wanted to get a full picture, they would need to read all of Paul’s letter to get the full story.


After reading all they facts from the Bible and church history one cannot help but see women

having a more active role within the Bible and more pre- Egalitarianism over time.


Pre-Egalitarianism did not happen overnight, it was a long process and it evolved slowly. It is right to say that Jesus helped to bring about gender equality, however, he did not force it. He allowed for people to grow in their own terms and become better people over time. Jesus did not pick high and Almighty; People  chose everyday people and one can see this in his outcome.






































Works Cited


Atwell  Robert Celebrating the Saints: Daily Spiritual Readings for the Calendars of the Church

of England, the   Church of Ireland, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Church in Wales

Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd. 2003 Kindle Edition.

Bristow, John T. What Paul Really Said About Women: The Apostle’s Liberating Views on

Equality in Marriage, Leadership, and Love 2011. HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

Bauckham, Richard . The Women at the Tomb: The Credibility of their Story The Laing Lecture

at London Bible College

Church Publishing. Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints (Kindle Location 5583).

Church Publishing Inc. 2010. Kindle Edition.

Evans, M. J. . Woman in the Bible: an overview of all the crucial passages on women’s roles 

  1. Carlisle, UK: Paternoster.

Erickson, Millard J. . Christian Theology. Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition. 2013

Gitay, Y. . Bathsheba. In (M. A. Powell, Ed.)The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and

Updated). New York: HarperCollins  2011.

Kroeger, C. C. Women in Greco-Roman World and Judaism. In (C. A. Evans & S. E. Porter,

Eds.)Dictionary of New Testament background: a compendium of contemporary biblical

scholarship. 2000 Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Patterson, D. Woman. In (C. Brand, C. Draper, A. England, S. Bond, E. R. Clendenen, & T. C.

Butler, Eds.)Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. 2001 Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Prelinger , the late Catherine M. Episcopal Women: Gender, Spirituality, and Commitment in an

American Mainline Denomination (Religion in America) 1992 Oxford University Press, USA

Johnson, Alan F.. How I Changed My Mind about Women in Leadership: Compelling Stories

from Prominent Evangelicals 2010 . Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

Hughes, R. K. Luke: That you may know the truth. Preaching the Word 1998. Wheaton, IL:

Crossway Books.

Hammer, J. Sisters at Sinai: New Tales of Biblical Women  2011. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish

Publication Society.

Grudem, W. A. (Ed.). Biblical foundations for manhood and womanhood (2002). Wheaton, IL:

Crossway Books.

Rosen, N.  Biblical Women Unbound: Counter-Tales  1996. Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish

Publication Society.

Stanley J. Grenz;Denise Muir Kjesbo. Women in the Church: A Biblical Theology of Women in

Ministry (Kindle Locations 378-379). Kindle Edition.

Ochs, V. L. Sarah Laughed: Modern Lessons from the Wisdom and Stories of Biblical Women

2011 Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society.

Matthews, V. H., Chavalas, M. W., & Walton, J. H. (2000). The IVP Bible background

commentary: Old Testament (electronic ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Nelson, Thomas . The Orthodox Study Bible: Ancient Christianity Speaks to Today’s World

(Kindle Locations 70912-70914). Thomas Nelson. 2008 Kindle Edition. 

Taitz, E., Henry, S., & Tallan, C. The JPS Guide to Jewish Women: 600 B.C.E–1900 C.E. 2003.

Philadelphia: TheJewish Publication Society.

Roop, E. F. Genesis . Scottdale, PA:  1987 Herald Press.

Veal, David . Calendar of Saints: Lent Madness 2013 Edition. Forward Movement. Kindle Edition.,

[1] Soanes, C., & Stevenson, A. (2004). Concise Oxford English dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


[2] Alexander, T. D., & Baker, D. W. (2003). In Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

[3] Evans, M. J. (1983). Woman in the Bible: an overview of all the crucial passages on women’s roles (p. 12). Carlisle, UK: Paternoster.


[4] Gen 2:23

[5] Alexander, T. D., & Baker, D. W. (2003). In Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

[6] Baker, 903


[7] Rosen, N. . Biblical Women Unbound: Counter-Tales . Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society 96

[8] Alexander, T. D., & Baker, D. W. (2003). In Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.


[9] Jewish tradition also says that, like her brothers Aaron and Moses, Miriam died by the kiss of God because the angel of death had no power over her (b. B. Bat. 17a).

Alexander, T. D., & Baker, D. W. (2003). In Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.


[10] Matthews, V. H., Chavalas, M. W., & Walton, J. H. (2000). The IVP Bible background commentary: Old Testament (electronic ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.


[11] Matthews


[12] Achtemeier, P. J., Harper & Row and Society of Biblical Literature. (1985). In Harper’s Bible dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row.


[13] Achtemeier, P. J., Harper & Row and Society of Biblical Literature. (1985). In Harper’s Bible dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row.


[14] Gitay, Y. (2011). Bathsheba. In (M. A. Powell, Ed.)The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated). New York: HarperCollins.


[15] Gitay, Y. (2011). Bathsheba. In (M. A. Powell, Ed.)The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated). New York: HarperCollins.

[16] Green, J. B., McKnight, S., & Marshall, I. H. (Eds.). (1992). In Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.


[17] Marshall , 882


[18] Erickson, Millard J. (2013-08-15). Christian Theology (p. 500). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.


[19] Marshall, 883


[20] Robert Atwell (2011-11-09). Celebrating the Saints: Daily Spiritual Readings for the Calendars of the Church of England, the Church of Ireland, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Church in Wales (Kindle Locations 9313-9314). Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd. Kindle Edition.


[21] Atwell Kindle Locations 9313-9314


[22] Nelson, Thomas (2008-02-28). The Orthodox Study Bible: Ancient Christianity Speaks to Today’s World (Kindle Locations 70912-70914). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 

[23] Atwell Kindle Locations 9313-9314


Atwell ( (Kindle Locations 9375-9378).


[25] Atwell ( (Kindle Locations 9375-9378).

[26] Fitzmyer, (892).

[27] Fitzmyer, (892).

[28] Fitzmyer, (892).

[29] Hughes, R. K. (1998). Luke: That you may know the truth. Preaching the Word (396). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.



[31] Veal, David (2013-01-28). Calendar of Saints: Lent Madness 2013 Edition (Kindle Locations 1739-1741). Forward Movement. Kindle Edition.,


[32] Veal, (Kindle Locations 1739-1741). Forward Movement. Kindle Edition.,


[33] Atwell  Kindle Locations 8031-8032


[34] Atwell, Kindle Location 8033

[35] Stanley J. Grenz;Denise Muir Kjesbo. Women in the Church: A Biblical Theology of Women in Ministry (Kindle Locations 378-379). Kindle Edition.


[36] Grenz; (Kindle Locations 380-382).


[37] Grenz, (Kindle Locations 1117-1120).


[38] Grenz, (Kindle Locations 1135-1137).

[39] Johnson, Alan F. (2010-11-02). How I Changed My Mind about Women in Leadership: Compelling Stories from Prominent Evangelicals (p. 42). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.


[40] Erickson, Millard J. (2013-08-15). Christian Theology (p. 501). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.


[41] Johnson, p. 162.


[42] Bristow, John T. (2011-07-12). What Paul Really Said About Women: The Apostle’s Liberating Views on Equality in Marriage, Leadership, and Love pp. 6-7. HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.


[43] Bristow, p. 60.


[44] Bristow, p. 61.

The Story of the Bible is Violence

The story of the Holy Bible is violence. Violence was used by God and sometimes God used mankind to help the nation of Israel  change  its ways. One has to pick the stories from the different books of the Bible to prove, through the whole Bible, that violence was used. One will see in these examples from the different translations, that God used violence to make the world a better place.

            First, we will start from the book of Genesis and the fall of mankind; after Adam and Eve wished to be like God. God punished them by forcing them out of the Garden of Eden.  From the book of Genesis chapter 3:24, “And he cast out Adam: and placed before the paradise of pleasure Cherubims, and a flaming sword, turning every way, to keep the way of the tree of life”. [1] The effect of Adam and Eve’s choice made possible for this sin to spread to their children. Cain and Abel were brothers, but were jealous of each other. God would take offerings from Abel and not that of Cain. Cain tricked his brother into thinking they were going for a walk, when Cain would murder his brother. From Genesis 9:1, “and he said to him: What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth to me from the earth.”[2] Cain would end up being forced out from God as his parents were before him and he would be cursed.

            The book of Exodus is about the  Ancient Hebrew People  and their movement to Egypt over time, which became such a large number of people that the Egyptians had to force them into slavery. This way, the Hebrew people would not over-power them. This would backfire on Egypt for out of this, Moses would rise to be the voice of God among His Hebrew People. Moses and his brother Aaron go through conflict with the Egyptians  over whose gods were more powerful than the other. The Pharaoh’s heart was still hard to letting the Hebrew go. God chose to soften his heart by killing all first borns of Egyptian households in that area. In Exodus 11:5,  “All the first born sons will die in every family in Egypt, from the oldest son of Pharaoh, who sits on his throne, to the oldest son of his lowliest servant girl who grinds the flour”.[3] Moses, through God, used Pharaoh’s own words against him by killing all the first borns. This  reinforces that the Lord used violence for the  purpose of the “greater good” of humanity. The Pharaoh, mourning his son’s life and his people’s children, told Moses that  the Hebrew people could go. Ironically, Pharaoh would rise up with force and try to stop the Hebrew people from leaving. Once again, the Egyptians would be foolish to act this way. The Hebrews would pass through the Red Sea with God’s help and when the Egyptians tried to follow, the Red Sea came down and crushed them. Then, the Hebrew people started over, but again violence is ever present in their lives. The Hebrew people would live in the desert for 40 years according to Exodus and other books of the early Hebrew Bible. There is also Numbers, Joshua and Judges. All of these books have violence in them in one way or another.

First and Second Book of Samuel

            Eli’s family was called to be a part of the priesthood and his children were not doing what was right in eyes of God. For this, God punished Eli and his family. According to the  book of Samuel, “And this that shall come upon your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, shall be the sign to you: both of them shall die on the same day”. [4] Now this may not seem like violence to most people, but God did kill this whole family. They were His priests and they were not living rightly in his eyes, so he destroyed them. In the story of David and Goliath, people think David is an innocent boy. As people know, David was simply a Sheppard and a little boy, but look at his actions. According to Samuel 17:51, Then David ran and stood over the Philistine; he grasped his sword, drew it out of its sheath, and killed him; then he cut off his head with it”. [5] David was not meek. Firstly, being a Sheppard they were  tough people and he said before this that God had protected him from lions and bears. God used David with violence to save his people of  Israel and ultimately make him king. David  became King of Israel and united them under him. David would cross the line and sleep with another man’s wife and get her pregnant Uriah, not even Jewish but Hittite, was more of a man of honor than David. David would have him killed and take Bathsheba as his own. David did this because he did not get caught. He would not sleep with his wife before battle, which was Jewish custom. So David had him killed to protect him from the crime he did.  David is so blinded by his power he does not realize what wrong he has done. According to  2 Samuel 11: 15, “In the letter he wrote, ‘Set Uriah in the forefront of the hardest fighting, and then draw back from him, so that he may be struck down and die.”[6] Nathan, the Prophet of God, remind David of his sinful deeds  and God take away his son’s life. According to 2 Samuel 12:14, “Nevertheless, because by this deed you have utterly scorned the Lord, the child that is born to you shall die.”[7] It can clearly be seen God used violence to bring his message across.

The Book of Kings:

            In the book of Kings, Elijah gets into contestation with other prophets of Baal who stated their  god was  more powerful. Elijah would let Baal’s priests “work their magic.” but a fire would not start with their spells. Elijah, even with wet wood, would start a fire with his God’s power. After this, Elijah had the Jewish people murdering in the name of their God.  According to  the book of Kings,”and Elijah said to them, ‘Seize the prophets of Baal!   Do not let one of them escape!’ So they seized them; and Elijah brought them down to the Brook Kishon and executed them there.”[8] God used violence in this situation to get his message across. Baal is a false god and  Yahweh of Israel was not.  God used the exile of  other nations to make Israel become the nation he wished it to be. First by Babylonians and then by Persians. Both of these nations were used by Yahweh to make Israel change its ways.

The Exile :

            Both the book of Jeremiah and  Daniel show life before and after the exile. Jeremiah warns the  people and acts likes a fool to get his point across. According to Jeremiah,  “and the king of Babylon’s army was then besieging Jerusalem; and the prophet Jeremiah was shut up in the court of the guard, which was in the king of Judah’s house.”[9]  God is using violence in this situation to gain humanity’s salvation for the greater good. The first passage of Daniel shows how God used the Babylonians to help the Jewish people and humanity overall. In the first chapter of the book of Daniel, In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim King of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged .”[10] Both of these passages used the word “besieging” which was warfare and one nation forcing control over another ., Israel let God down and a cycle of  God punishing them and then redeeming them  came about. Violence, once again, is ameans to an end for God and the greater good of humanity.

The Salvation Story through Violence:

 Most people know the Biblical story of the Lord Jesus. There were many violent events that took  place in His lifetime. The connection as seen in Matthew’s Jesus as the new Moses.  According to Matthew :

            Then Herod, when he saw that he was deceived by the wise men, was exceedingly            angry; and he sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all         its districts, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had determined from the wise men.[11]

These poor infants were killed in an effort to stop Jesus from becoming the Messiah. It is  interesting how this violent act is only talked about in this Gospel; once again reinforcing that violence is needed  to make God’s salvation plan known.  Jesus, when he was put on trial, was whipped badly  and he could have died from that alone. According to Gospel Matthew, Then he released Barabbas to them; and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to be crucified.”[12] This sentence has double meaning because Jesus was whipped and this is a violent act, However, when the Jewish people pick Barabbas over Jesus, this shows that  the Jewish people said they preferred violence over peace. Most people knew that Jesus died on the Cross for humanity’s sin. This can even be seen throughout the Bible to the book of Revelation.

            Revelation has been seen as the end of the world and has been influenced by the book of Daniel.  St. John the Divine writes about how those who used violence will have  violence used on them too.  St. John the Divine wrote, “If anyone is to be killed with the sword, with the sword he will be killed” [13] Revelation also tells about the ten plagues that fall on the Earth. Revelation states, “I saw in heaven another great and marvelous sign: seven angels with the seven last plagues—last, because with them God’s wrath is completed.”[14] It is about when judgment day comes upon the end. Also,  St. John the Divine writes about other forms of problems for people. Then I heard a loud voice from the temple saying to the seven angels, “Go, pour out the seven bowls of God’s wrath on the earth.”[15] The “mysterious whore of Babylon” has been a question of some scholars for many years. Many think it is the  link to paganism, especially in the Roman Empire, In the age of  Reformation,  many of the Reformers claim it  to be  the Papal state.  One must think of this as Rome. Of course, the early church was attacked by Rome and ironically it took over the Roman Empire itself. This too proves that God used violence for a greater purpose. St. John the Divine writes about these visions of battle between good and evil; in other words, Jesus against the Devil. The Devil will lose and be locked in Hell for all eternity in the lake of fire.

            The world  has always been in a battle between good and evil. In the end, the Good, which is God, will win and bring salvation to people who repent and change their sinful ways. Sadly, this world only seems to know violence and God has let us have it. The book of Revelation said it the best, “I am the Alpha and the Omega,’ says the Lord God, ‘who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.” [16]





Work Cited

The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611            Authorized Version.) (Jn 19:1). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.The Holy

Bible : King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611    Authorized      Version.) (Lk 22:50–52). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

The New King James Version. 1982 (Mk 6:16). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Darby, J. N. (1996). The Holy Scriptures : A new translation from the original languages (Je          32:1–2). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems.

Darby, J. N. (1996). The Holy Scriptures : A new translation from the original languages (Is          53:4–5). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems.

The Holy Bible : Holman Christian standard version. 2003 (Da 1:1). Nashville: Holman Bible       Publishers.

The Holy Bible : Holman Christian standard version. 2003 (1 Ki 12:1–4). Nashville: Holman         Bible Publishers.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Ex 12:29–30). Grand Rapids:             Zondervan.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Ex 11:4–6). Grand Rapids:     Zondervan.

The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Ex 2:11–13). Grand Rapids:   Zondervan.

The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001 (Ex 1:12–14). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

The Everyday Bible : New Century Version. 2005 (Ge 4:9–12). Nashville, TN.: Thomas Nelson,   Inc.

Tyndale House Publishers. (2004). Holy Bible : New Living Translation. (2nd ed.) (Ge 3:22–24). Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers.

1 The Holy Bible, Translated from the Latin Vulgate. 2009 (Ge 3:24). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

2 The Holy Bible, Translated from the Latin Vulgate. 2009 (Ge 4:10). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

10 Tyndale House Publishers. (2004). Holy Bible : New Living Translation. (2nd ed.) (Ex 11:4–5). Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers.

4 The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001 (1 Sa 2:34). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

5 The Holy Bible : New Revised Standard Version. 1989 (1 Sa 17:51). Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

 6 The Holy Bible : New Revised Standard Version. 1989 (2 Sa 11:15). Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

7 The Holy Bible : New Revised Standard Version. 1989 (2 Sa 12:14–15). Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

[8] 1 Kings 18:40 (NKJV)

[9] Jeremiah 32:1-2

10 The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Da 1:1). Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

[11] The New King James Version. 1982 (Mt 2:16–17). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[12] Matthew 27:26 (NKJV)

13 The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Re 13:10). Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

14 The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Re 15:1–2). Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

15 The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Re 16:1). Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

16 The Holy Bible : New International Version. 1996 (electronic ed.) (Re 1:8). Grand Rapids: Zondervan.